Vocaloid Wiki
! The following is a tutorial made for VOCALOID fans by fellow VOCALOID fans. !

VOCALOID1's Parameters[]


Brightness changes the voice by boosting or cutting the voice's high-frequency content. The higher the value, the brighter the sound. Lowering the value creates a more mellow voice.


Similar to Brightness, Clearness is designed to 'clear' the voice, making it sharper. A higher value sharpens the voice, lowering it gives a more muted sound.

Gender Factor[]

Shifts the overall formant structure of the voice over a large range. Raising the Gender Factor will produce a thicker masculine tone while lowering it will give a more feminine, or even "chipmunk-like", sound to the voice.


The Harmonics parameter controls the level of harmonic content in the voice, thus affecting the phonation. Vowels and other sonorants are always voiced, so they're the most affected by this parameter.

This is one of the parameters that's no longer available in later versions of the software. Although it was removed from V3 onwards, it's possible achieve devoicing of the sonorants with the addition of a '_0' suffix to the intended phoneme.


Opposite to Harmonics, the Noise parameter controls the level of the unvoiced content in the voice. For this reason mostly affects to consonants, especially the unvoiced ones. This also affects the "breathiness" of the voice. This is one of the parameters that's no longer available in later versions of the software.

Note Velocity[]

Note Velocity determines the individual volume of each note (similar to the Velocity measurement of the MIDI format) and it's automatically created when a note is drawn. Unlike any other parameter used in V1, the pencil tool cannot be used with it, and instead uses individual bars for modify it's value.

As the Note Velocity was replaced with the Velocity (VEL) parameter on later version of software, it's important take note of this if you ever attempt to export a VSQ file into a VOCALOID MIDI file.


The Resonances were a group of parameters that allowed users to edit the formants of the singing samples individually. Each parameter controlled a specific formant, changing the pronunciation of vowels and the timbre of the singing voice. This is one of the parameters that is no longer available in later versions of the software.


The Singer Parameter is used to change voices in the control track. There can be multiple singers per track. A thing to note is when importing VSQs into V1, the Singer Icon will appear twice instead of once.

Pitch Bend[]

The Pitch Bend Parameter goes from -8192 to 8191 with 0 as its default. It can allow the voice to go up to ±2 octaves from the original note. However it needs to be used with the Pitch Bend Sensitivity to unlock its full range.

Pitch Bend Sensitivity[]

Pitch Bend Sensitivity is used to decrease or increase the range of the Pitch Bend Parameter. The default at 12 allows for a pitch variation of ±1 octave, and at 24 it allows for a pitch variation of ±2 octaves.

Portamento Timing[]

Portamento Timing is used to change the timing of the notes. However, it should be mentioned that Portamento is generally affected more by the singing style, rather than the Portamento Timing Parameter itself after the 1.1 update. The higher the value is, the later the timing is; the lower the value the sooner the note is sung.

Parameters from VOCALOID2 and onwards[]

From the 2nd version of the software, there have been a series of parameters that have become common in all the succeeding versions of YAMAHA's singing software. A selection of them were available in V1, though some possess new functions or work in a different way. Despite the changes between each version, the basic functionality of these parameters hasn't suffered drastic modification since then.

VEL (Velocity)[]

Velocity determines how quickly the singers pronounces the note/word, thus influencing consonant trailing and consonant duration. Higher velocities result in shorter consonants and subjectively affects the attack of the lyric[1][2]. This parameters affects strongly the fricatives and affricates, like the "s" and "f" sounds. Unlike the other parameters, its value is adjusted through a series of individual bars per note instead of a continuous curve; a trait carried from the old 'Note Velocity' parameter.

In VOCALOID2, large adjustments produced insignificant changes, so usually people didn't adjust this value very much. However since VOCALOID3 and onwards, this parameter indeed affects significantly the consonant length, making critical adjust it for achieve a correct pronunciation, emphasis or attack.

As it affects the consonant length, it can move the beginning of a note closer to, and sometimes even so that it overlaps, the preceding note. In the case of plosives this can sometimes result in an almost silent preparatory interval prior to sounding of the actual consonant.

As said before, the Velocity parameters work differently across VOCALOID and VOCALOID2 (in V1, it manipulated the volume of the note), so it's important take note of this if you ever attempt to export a VSQ file into a VOCALOID MIDI file.

DYN (Dynamics)[]

Dynamics basically adjust the singer's volume across the track, allowing you to create effects like crescendo or diminuendo, and when it's used effectively adds expressiveness. Also allows you to do manually the attacks and accents in the song. The default "curve" is a straight line at the medium dynamic value.

To get a more realistic voice, it's advisable that you vary this per note, or accordingly the expression or intensity the singer delivers in the song.

DYN are not advisable to be too high across the song. While they raise the volume, also it raises the overall loudness and makes more notorious the sound artifact and noise found in the voicebank's samples. Besides, on lower grade computers it will increase the "crackling" effect if one adjusts VOCALOIDs mixer. Particularly true if one has more than one multiple vocalist in several tracks.

BRE (Breathiness)[]

Breathiness controls the weight of the voice’s breathing. Higher values add more breath to the voice. In earlier versions of the software this was one of the parameters the users preferred keep at minimal, due the inherent "metallic" sound of the breaths, and because also it may affect the speech clarity.

It's one of the parameters that you can edit through the 'Singer Editor' to create your own voice configurations for singers.

BRI (Brightness)[]

Brightness is one of the parameters retained from the first version of the software. It keeps its functionality intact, boosting or cutting the voice’s high-frequency content. Higher values produce a brighter, or more "present" sound, while lower values produce a more mellow effect. Lower values can effectively simulate gently delivered or even whispered phrases. Also affects the overall volume, along a lower brightness there's a lower volume and vice-versa.

It's one of the parameters that you can edit through the 'Singer Editor' to create your own voice configurations or singers.

CLE (Clearness)[]

Clearness is one of the parameters retained from the first version of the software. It keeps its functionality intact, sharpening the voice. Higher values produce a sharper, clearer sound while lower values produce a more muted sound. It is the VOCALOID software's equivalent of treble.[citation needed]

It affects consonant phonemes' pronunciation, those ones becomes harsher and more notorious. Also the "roboticness", synthesizer's artifacts and samples' noise are increased if you raise this parameter too much. Also affects the overall volume, along a lower clearness there's a lower volume and vice-versa.

It's one of the parameters that you can edit through the 'Singer Editor' to create your own voice configurations or singers.

OPE (Opening)[]

The Opening parameter reproduce the variation of pronunciation through adjustments of the opening of the mouth. Higher opening values can produce a clear, open tone, while reducing the opening value can produce a less distinct tone or pronunciation. It also affects the overall pronunciation, the open vowels are the most affected by this parameter. Its default value in the editor, it's set at max.

In VOCALOID2, it's one of the parameters that you can edit through the 'Singer Editor' for create your own voice configurations or singers. This is no longer available in the 'Singer Editor' for VOCALOID3 and later versions of the software, as the parameter was modified to work in a similar fashion to the VEL, through individual control bars for each note, instead of an editable curve as it happens with the other parameters. This parameter has been replaced by "Mouth" in VOCALOID5.

GEN (Gender Factor)[]

Gender Factor is one of the parameters retained from the first version of the software, up until VOCALOID5. It keeps its functionality intact, modifying the overall formant structure of the voice, effectively altering the timbre and it's inherent "masculinity" or "femininity", without break the original foundation of the voice. Higher values produces a thicker masculine tone while lowering it will give a more feminine or even a "chipmunk-like" sound tone to the voice. This parameter has been replaced by "Character" in VOCALOID5.

It's noteworthy to consider as this parameter modifies the formants, it can alter until certain degree the pronunciation of the vowels and other phonemes. This may be useful, considering the removal of the  Resonances parameters in the succeeding versions of the software.

It's one of the parameters that you can edit through the 'Singer Editor' to create your own voice configurations or singers.

POR (Portamento Timing)[]

Portamento Timing is one of the parameters retained from the first version of the software, however it function is slightly different in comparison with its V1 counterpart. This parameter adjusts the starting position of the Portamento (in other words, the pitch sliding between two notes).

POR should be used in moderation as it could unsynchronize the pitch variation if used haphazardly, creating the impression of "drunken singing", especially when there are short notes with drastic changes of pitch.

However, if it's used effectively, it gives a more human feel as it allows you to effectively control the legato and pitch transition.

In VOCALOID4, this parameter is easier to use with the aid of the 'Pitch Rendering' feature.

PIT (Pitch Bend)[]

With a PBS = 3, the three notes has approximately the same Pitch

The Pitch Bend is one of the parameters retained from the first version of the software. It keeps its functionality intact, allowing adjust the Pitch through an editable curve, allowing you create hand-drawn pitch bends. How much it affects the pitch, is determined by the PBS.[3]

This parameter is useful for the correction of certain pitch nuances and for add more expressiveness. Sometimes it may be preferable use this parameter instead of POR to create a specific kind of pitch bend.

The PIT also affects slightly the brightness and the clearness. Along a higher PIT, there are higher brightness and clearness of the affected note, and vice-versa.

In VOCALOID4, this parameter acquires new uses and a better control with the addition of the 'Pitch Rendering', which allows you to see graphically the changes or adjustments of pitch, and the 'Convert Vibrato to Pitch Bend' options, which respectively converts the vibratos and legatos/portamento normally edited through the 'Note Expression Property' window into equivalent curves of the PIT parameter.

PBS (Pitch Bend Sensitivity)[]

The Pitch Bend Sensitivity is one of the parameters retained from the first version of the software. It keeps its functionality intact, determining the semitones range of PIT parameter.

For example, for a D3 note if the PBS is set on 3 and the PIT is set at its highest value, the note will sound like a F3 note (3 semitones higher than the original note pitch).

Its maximum value is 24 semitones, the equivalent to 2 octaves.

VOCALOID4's Parameters[]

GWL (Growl)[]

This parameter adds a hard tremolo or guttural effect to the voice, giving it a more aggressive or forced intonation, adding expression to the tone of the vocal.[4] It uses additional recorded samples to work, for this reason VOCALOID2 and VOCALOID3 cannot use the feature simply because they do not contain the additional samples needed for the feature.[5] Importing the VOCALOID3 version of Yuzuki Yukari into VOCALOID alongside the Yuzuki Yukari V4 will open up the use of XSY for use with any of the VOCALOID4 packages vocals, but it will not be able to use GWL, despite the 3 voicebanks within the VOCALOID4 package having access to it.

This allows for certain VOCALOIDs to have a voice needed for genres such as Rock, Blues or Soul, expanding their capabilities beyond their normal genres.[6] The feature is varied in its results with some VOCALOIDs being more impacted then others.

"VOCALOID 4 新機能 「グロウル」 - Growl - "
  YouTube  Official Demonstration of the Growl parameter

XSY (Cross-Synthesis)[]

Cross Synthesis (クロス-シーサセス) is a parameter that allows a voicebank to be able to blend into another voicebank, in a gradually and progressive way. For example, a "natural" voicebank being able to blend into sound like a "power" voicebank. It is only available with the full version of the software and is not accessible with the "lite" version of the software.

Main article: Cross-Synthesis

VOCALOID5's Parameters[]


Exciter is a tool that adjusts the tone and forcefulness of the voice.


Breathiness alters the amount of breath to be mixed in with the vocal, as well as adjusting it's tone. This function works somewhat differently than it's predecessor on earlier engines. Rather than producing a more metallic breathy sound, it now produces a more natural sound. When used at it's fullest extent it can even sound like whispering.


Similar to Breathiness, Air alters the amount of breath to be mixed in with the vocal. However unlike Breathiness it does not adjust the tone of the vocal.


Formerly known as OPE (Opening), Mouth functions in a similar way to it's V3/V4 predecessor.


Formerly known as GEN (Gender Factor), Character functions in the reverse of it's predecessor where as before a feminine pronunciation was initially produced by lowering the value and masculine produced by increasing it, now a feminine pronunciation is produced by raising the value and masculine by lowering it.

Using the parameters[]

Controlling the intonation[]

Basic Parameters[]

Before VOCALOID4, the only way to modify the intonation of a voice was using the parameters BRI, CLE, BRE, OPE and GEN. The combination of these ones allowed to modulate the voice in different ways and the 'Singer Editor' allowed to save some of the customized voice configurations for work as your personalized own singer.

Switching and combining voicebanks[]

Although the previous options allowed the ability to affect the overall voice intonation and timbre, it isn't possible to dramatically increase the overall power of a voicebank; it being easier to module and tinge the voice to make it softer than the other way around. This is especially important when working with voicebanks that are inherently soft and it means it's not possible to obtain a powerful voice from a soft voicebank through the edition of the basic parameters.

Part of the issue addressed previously was partially solved with the addition of the packs that included multiple voicebanks for the same voice. The creation of the Append, Extend and other similar packs allowed the users to change the overall intonation in the middle of a song by simply switching to a more fitting version of the same voice.

However, this still had its limitations as it wasn't possible to produce a gradual transition. The user was often recurring to different methods, like tinging the voices with the help of the parameters, or making them sing in chorus or harmony and switch the voices accordingly for a smoother change in the intonation.

This finally was solved in the 4th release of the software with the introduction of the XSY parameter, and other options like the E.V.E.C., which allow a better control of the voice timbre and intonation. When these new options are combined with tricks used previously, it allows a great degree of control for the user.

Additional tools[]

Adjusting the pronunciation[]

Aside of the intonation and expressiveness, these parameters affects the pronunciation of the words. The most important parameters needed to correctly control the pronunciation are VEL, OPE and GEN.

As stated previously, the Velocity (VEL) controls the consonants' length and trailing at the beginning of the syllables/notes. It's for this reason that its required to adjust it carefully in order to avoid weird pronunciation, forced emphasis or incorrect stress.

Adjusting the Opening (OPE) parameter simulates the change of pronunciation on how wide the performer opens their voice while singing. Set at max value by default, lowering this parameter produces a more ambiguous and less distinguishable pronunciation. In general terms, lowering the OPE makes the consonants less marked and affects in minor degree raises the vowel's height, making them sound tenser. The first effect is useful to diminish the consonant's stress, while the second is useful to modify the "vowel color."

The Gender Factor (GEN) modifies the formant structure to alter the voice's timbre; it can be used to modify the pronunciation of the phonemes, specially if used in conjunction with the OPE parameter. If the user wants to modify the pronunciation without significantly altering the timbre, try not to dramatically alter the GEN value.

Other parameters that can be useful as supplementary support are the BRE and the BRI, the first one being useful to adjust certain pronunciations that have an inherent degree of breathiness like the aspirated consonants, the glottal fricative or other similar sounds.

Expressive Elements[]

In general terms, the most critical parameters for achieve a convincing degree of expressiveness are the DYN and the PIT/PBS. The first one is required to control the overall volume, emphasis, and modulate or imitate some expressive techniques (crescendo/diminuendo, dynamic accent, etc), while the later one is required to control the tonality and to imitate some of the voice's inflections. The importance of these parameters in the voice's expressiveness becomes more evident with the new VOCALOID4 feature, 'Convert Vibrato to Pitch Bend' and 'Convert Expression to Pitch Bend' options, and with the multiple Job Plug-ins like SineVibrato or Vocalistener, that seeks to imitate the different expressive elements throughout the variation of the DYN, PIT and PBS curves.

Another useful parameter to add a layer of the emotion into the singing is the Brightness (BRI). When raised, the BRI can add power to the voice, making the notes louder for impact, something useful in parts like the climax of the song or during an intense singing segment. This can be further enhanced if it's combined with other parameters like the DYN (raises the volume/loudness), CLE (sharpens the pronunciation) or GWL (produces a more tense, hoarse/raspy or aggressive tone). In the opposite direction, low BRI values allows the performer to reproduce gently delivered singing or a more whispery voice - something that can be enhanced furthermore when combined with low DYN values and the BRE parameter.

The Breathness (BRE) is an useful, but a tricky parameter which if is used effectively allows a more natural feeling, complementing or imitating the breaths and other similar expressive elements in the singing or even help to produce a whisper-like effect, specially when it's combined with parameters like DYN and BRI. However, if it's abused or tuned incorrectly it may cause issues with the clarity, pronunciation, increase some sound artifacts or produce undesired noises. The BRE works particularly well along other options of the synthesizer like the devoiced phonemes or the E.V.E.C. Voice Release.

Additional tools[]


  • Not all VOCALOID users will be working for the same goals. With a great deal of work, you can also use a few of these techniques to hide the digital roboticness the VOCALOID engine produces as it goes from note to note. Remember, the more dramatic the change from one note to another in the octaves (going from #C1 to #C4 for instance) will produce high levels of roboticness and not all of these techniques will be able to remove it. You can also use the parameters of the software to make the software more robotic, if that is your goal also.
  • Besides the use of the parameters, after importing the WAV file, you can work the voice in some DAWs or sound editors. Some filters can add a electronic effects if you're attempting to increase the robotic feeling, or for the otherwise, you can remove some of the synthesizer's artifacts for give it a more natural and human feeling.

See also[]